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The main theme of the international conference is closely related to the national and international concerns about development and the sustainable management of resources in difficult zones, and notably those marked by aridity in the new contexts of globalization and environment changes with specific reference to climate ones..

The fast and deep changes of the environment, on the local, national and international levels, under the influence of the globalization and tough competitiveness in the “difficult zones, might impede the development process that these regions have witnessed.

So, in spite of their own limitations, the «difficult zones " were able to survive by tapping a certain number of assets, and notably their adjustment capacity to put up with the various challenges dictated by their local environment. Second, and given these zones are not well equipped to face these fast changes, dictated by global phenomena (globalization, climate changes, desertification etc.), the State has provided them with a vast program of assistance in terms of social and economic development projects to help them protect their natural resources.

The main topic of the conference is focused on the difficult zones (particularly the dry zones) where societies witness a wide range of transition phases.